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Does Islamic Literature Suggest Jesus is God?
Islamic teaching has always held that Jesus (Issa) was not God. He was simply a good man and one of the most esteemed prophets of Allah. There are, however, several statements in the Quran and Traditions that suggest something even greater. One, it is said Jesus was sinless; two, He created a bird; and three, He will return as judge of the entire world. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that these three statements point to the divinity of Jesus. No other prophet—not even Muhammad—made such claims. (Jasmine of Damascus, Teaching Assistant, School of Divinity, Liberty University)
Does Islamic Literature Suggest Jesus is God?
Most Muslims deny the deity of Jesus Christ (Surah 4:171; 5:73-75). They call Jesus Issa, and consider him a good man, a messenger, and a prophet of Allah. They believe he has one nature, his human nature, and that his role in salvation is to teach people to obey Allah. This stands in contrast to the Christian view that considers Jesus as being more than a good man, and believes that He has a divine nature that is united to his human nature.
If the Islamic belief is accurate, then Christians are polytheists as Muslims claims. It is wrong for them to worship a mere man, Jesus Christ, or obey him as their Lord and master. They should believe in him as a great leader and a prophet, like any other messenger, or apostle mentioned in the Bible. By implication, this should lead to the belief that Jesus has no power to forgive sins because he is a mere man, which means that He has no authority to save human kind. On the other hand, if the Christian faith is accurate, and Jesus has a divine nature, then Christians are not polytheists, and Trinitarian belief is correct. This implies that the Islamic religion is false because it misses the most essential part for salvation: the ultimate sacrifice Jesus provided on the cross. As the apostle Paul says, “And if Christ has not been raised, your faith is futile; you are still in your sins” (1 Cor 15:17).
This paper will discuss three issues from Islamic literature that point to the deity of Christ.
Islamic Belief about the Sinless Nature of Jesus Christ
A comparative study on Jesus and the other prophets in the Qur’an and Hadeeth will reveal the distinguished nature of Jesus. Subsequent sections will argue that Jesus’ sinless nature is not because of his infallibility as the other prophets, but it is because of something beyond his human nature.
Jesus never Committed Sin
The Qur’an mentions several sins committed by various prophets, except for Jesus. Major prophets like Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jonah, and even Muhammad committed sins. For instance, when Adam and Eve ate from the tree, the Qur’an states clearly that they disobeyed Allah’s command (Surah 7:22; 20:122). Abraham longed for God’s forgiveness at the last day (Surah 26:27). Moses asked for forgiveness after killing the Egyptian (Surah 28:17). Finally, Muhammad himself asked for Allah’s forgiveness, and even wanted people to pray for him (Surah 48:2; 40:55). In Surah 47:19, Allah tells Muhammad: “So know (O Muhammad ﷺ) that, la ilaha illallah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah), and ask forgiveness for your sin, and also for (the sin of) believing men and believing women.” In other words, most major prophets committed sins. They were not supposed to be regarded as infallible beings.
Jesus’ Infallibility is different from the Infallibility of Other Prophets
Being sinless might not be a sufficient evidence for Muslims to believe in the deity of Christ, because they generally believe in the infallibility of all the prophets. That is to say, if all prophets are infallible, then what difference does Jesus’ infallibility make? The next section will discuss the doctrine of prophets’ infallibility, and focus on the uniqueness of Jesus’ infallibility in comparison with other prophets.
Muslims disagree about infallibility of the prophets. One school believes in integral infallibility, while many hold that every prophet is infallible in all he does or teaches. However, a closer look at Islamic sources shows this to be wrong. The Qur’an points to various sins of the prophets.
An awareness of these contradictions causes other Muslims to conclude that prophets are infallible regarding their spiritual message, and to major sins. In his book Fiqih Al-Khilaf (the doctrine of Dispute), Yassir Berhami states that Muslim scholars are united on a prophet’s infallibility in the following areas: accurately delivering God’s message, disbelief in God, polytheistic belief, and major sins, like wrongful killing, adultery and theft. However, they disagree about minor sins. In the same way, prophets are not immune to mistakes in their daily lives. Muhammad, for instance, passed by a group of people who were grafting palm trees, and said to them:
It may perhaps be good for you if you do not do that, so they abandoned this practice (and the date-palms) began to yield less fruit. They made a mention of it (to the Holy Prophet), whereupon he said: I am a human being, so when I command you about a thing pertaining to religion, do accept it, and when I command you about a thing out of my personal opinion, keep it in mind that I am a human being.
These people believed Muhammad, because they regarded him as the prophet of God, who would supposedly have had such knowledge. Prophets are supposed to rely on God’s revelation when they have questions. In some cases, they exercise their own reasoning, acting as jurists who can infer laws from the principles established by the Qur’an and the Hadeeth. The honest prophet should make it clear that this is his opinion. Integrity requires him to say he does not know the answer, or at least remains silent regarding information he is not sure of. Muhammad, on the other hand, sometimes gave the impression he knew everything. And whenever his advice did not work out, he declared that he is just a regular man who might be mistaken. That is to say, despite the claim that prophets are infallible when it comes to the major sins, Islamic literature shows that they committed them, and their minor sins mislead people from the truth, except for Jesus.
Jesus Was Never Touched by Satan
In addition to what the Qur’an mentions about Jesus, there is a Hadeeth in Islamic tradition which mentions that all people of the earth are touched by Satan at birth, except for Mary and her son Jesus. Abu Huraira says, “The Prophet (ﷺ) said, ‘No child is born but that, Satan touches it when it is born whereupon it starts crying loudly because of being touched by Satan, except Mary and her son.” This Hadeeth is also supported by Surah 3:36. In fact, Islamic scholars do not provide a thorough explanation to this Hadeeth. Jalal Al-Deen Al-Suyoti argues that “all the sons of Adam were touched in their side by Satan except Issa the son of Mary and his mother, a veil was made between them and him, so the stab touched the veil and did not reach them. It is also said they were not affected by sins as the rest of the sons of Adam.” Being touched by Satan has the connotation that the person is being defiled, therefore, becoming more vulnerable to sin. Islamic literature clearly revokes this option when it comes to Jesus. Mary and Jesus were never touched or defiled by Satan; even Muhammad did not have this privilege. Hence, there is clear evidence that Jesus’ sinless nature was superior to any other prophets
Islamic Belief about Jesus Christ Being Creator
Islam is a monotheistic religion, and according to Islam, there is only one creator. Allah created the heaven and the earth and all that belongs to it. He is the only creator, and all that he creates are subdued to his authority. The attribute/name of Allah, “The Creator,” belongs to God alone and no one else from the prophets can share it with him. Surah 59:24 states, “He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor of all things, the Bestower of forms.” The name “The Creator” is extracted from this verse, along with the other two names, to explain who Allah is. Saeed Al-Qahtani explains this verse by stating that names of God point to his essence, and that some of these names cannot be shared with created beings. They belong only to God.  One such name Al-Khaliq (The creator). However, some other names and attributes may be given to both God and people. For instance, Allah is called Allah ho Akbar (the great) but it can also be said that man is sometimes great. Yet, the greatness of God is different from the greatness of man. Unlike the word, Al-Khaliq (the creator), it belongs to Allah only for he is the only creator.
The meaning of the word Al-Khaliq is very unique in Arabic. The dictionary of Lissan-Al-Arab states that the word “Al-Khaliq with the AL [the definite article] is not supposed to be used for anyone but to Allah.” However, the root of the word can be used in common language. Like English, where a person can be called the creator—as the creator of this theme or program. Arabic language has the same option. If the meaning points to something that has a prior existence, then the creator accumulates few other elements to create something new. This is possibly why Islamic scholars have no problem with Jesus using the verb Akhliq (I create) when He created a bird.
Al-Ghazali discusses the attribute Al-Khaliq in relation to the other attributes that Surah 59:24 uses. Allah is described as Al-Bari’ (the Producer) and AL-Musawwir (the Fashioner) in addition to Al-Khaliq (the creator). He explains the Islamic version of human creation:
Another example is the fashioning of man, one of His creatures. His existence first requires a planning… for he is a body of a special kind… Then the constitution of a man will not be sound without both water and earth. For earth alone is utterly dry and will not fold or bend [to make] movements, whereas water alone is utterly wet, so it neither holds together nor stands up, but rather spreads out. So it is inevitable that the wet be mixed with the dry to a proper balance, and the result is called clay. Then it is necessary to have some heat to cook it until the mixture of water with earth be so constituted that it will not separate. For man is not fashioned from pure clay, but from fired clay, like the potter’s… Then we need to estimate a specific measure of water and of clay, for if it be too little, for example, human actions will not result from it, but it will be on the scale of atoms and ants, so the wind will scatter it and the smallest thing destroy it. Nor does it require, for example, a mountain of clay, for ant would exceed the amount needed: just enough—neither too much nor too little—in a proportion known to God—great and glorious. He is creator by virtue of planning these things, fashioner by virtue of originating according to the planning, and producer by virtue of sheer origination and invention from nothing into existence.
This visualization about the way Allah created Adam is well supported in the Qur’an in several places (Surah 55:14, 26, 28, 33). Allah uses dirt, water, and fire with a special measurement to create Adam. However, this view of creation is different from the biblical story. In the Bible God uses clay, and there is no fire involved in the process. In addition to this, the Bible does not mention that God created ants and insects from clay. God devoted the clay and his breath to only create Adam. Even Eve was not created from clay, but from the bones of Adam.
There is another verse in the Qur’an that uses the word creator. Surah 23:14 states, “So blessed be God, the Best of creators.” Regarding this verse that contextually speaks about Allah creating human beings, Islamic scholars believe that the expression “the Best of creators” does not connote the meaning of the one creating out of nothing, but the one who does the best estimation. Allah estimates the measurements and nature of the material he has to come up with a new creation. Allah is certainly not one of many creators because this idea contradicts the core of Al-Tawheed (monotheism) doctrine, which believes in one creator and one God. At the same time, the Qur’an mentions another creator, Jesus Christ. Jesus creates a bird in Surah 3:49, which states, “And I will make him a Messenger to the Children of Israel (saying): ‘I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, that I design for you out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, and breathe into it, and it becomes a bird by God’s Leave.’”
Several observations should be made at this point. First, the Arabic Qur’an does not use the verb “I design” in the previous verse, but the verb akhliq (I create). In other words, the writer of the Qur’an uses the same verb that is devoted only to Allah. Jesus in the Qur’an uses this verb and ascribes it to himself. The verb “creates” is used several times about Allah, but the verb “I create” is used only once in this verse. This sole use implies a significant truth: no person can create or has created except for Allah and Jesus.
Muslims scholars explain that the verb akhliq connotes the meaning of creation in estimation, not creating out of nothing. In their opinion, Jesus estimated the measurement of the clay that He needed to create the bird. He did not create that bird out of nothing, He needed the clay to estimate the creation. However, this meaning does not create a problem for the deity of Christ for three reasons: 1) Jesus created life from a lifeless matter, and this act is designated only to Allah. Muslims agree that Allah is the only life-giver; no one can bring life to the dead other than he. 2) The way Jesus created birds, and the way Allah created Adam are identical. They both used the same materials for their creation. Allah used clay to create Adam, and Jesus used clay to create the bird. In other words, if Jesus is not a creator, then He should have used different material. 3) The way Jesus chose to give life to the bird, and the way Allah chose to give life to Jesus are identical. Jesus gives life to a lifeless matter (the clay) by the same way Allah gives Jesus life through his mother Marry. As Allah sent his angel and breathed into Marry for conception, Jesus breathed into clay birds to give them life. These similarities cannot be mere coincidences. Rather, they seem to suggest that Christ was divine.
The last observation about the act of creation is the argument that Muhammad uses throughout the Qur’an that no one can create but God. In surah 31:10-11, Muhammad says to unbelievers: “He has created the heavens … And He has scattered therein moving (living) creatures of all kinds. And We send down water (rain) from the sky, and We cause (plants) of every goodly kind to grow therein. This is the creation of God. So show Me that which those (whom you worship), besides Him have created.” As the text reveals, Allah is the One who created this universe and gave life to his creatures. If any other god can create the same, then he should be considered as God. In this sense, Jesus should be regarded as God for He created a creature and gave life to lifeless matters. The previous analysis should help the reader see the distinguished act that Jesus did in the Qur’an. No other prophet could create anything–not even Muhammad.
Islamic Belief about Jesus Christ Being Judge
Muslims believe that Jesus is going to come at the final day as a ruler to judge the world. This belief is supported in several places in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. According to Muhammad, “Surely (Jesus,) the son of Mary will soon descend amongst you and will judge mankind justly (as a Just Ruler); he will break the Cross and kill the pigs and there will be no Jizya (i.e. taxation taken from non-Muslims).” This Hadeeth states clearly that Jesus will return to earth at the end of time to judge the world. He is not simply an alternative prophet. The next section will examine why Allah chose Jesus, and the circumstances of His coming. Again, it will point to his divinity.
Jesus: The Selected Judge of Allah
Muslims believe that there are several reasons for Allah choosing Jesus to return to this earth, and the first reason is related to Christians. This is implied in the phrase “he will break the Cross.” Sahih Bukhari mentions in the rest of the previous Hadeeth that “there is none of the people of the Scriptures (Jews and Christians). But must believe in him (i.e. Jesus as an Apostle of Allah and a human being) Before his death.” In other words, when Jesus comes again, He will revoke Christianity by denying the power of the cross, his deity, and his first death. Christians will believe in Islam because of his second coming.
Nevertheless, during the life of Jesus on earth, Islamic literature clearly states that many people believed in his divine nature, and Jesus was not able to convince them that this belief is false. Surah 5:116 states, “O ‘Iesa, son of Maryam! Did you say unto men: ‘Worship me and my mother as two gods besides God?’ He will say [said]: Glory be to You! It was not for me to say what I had no right (to say). Had I said such a thing, You would surely have known it.” In this verse, Allah asks Jesus if he taught people that he is a god beside Allah, but Jesus denies it. The reason that made these people believe in his divinity and not his mere humanity—despite his claim that he is just a mere human—is unclear in the Hadeeth. This belief could have possibly formed due to his divine works and miracles, which made many people, (called Al-Nasarah), believe in his divinity. According to the Qur’an, people saw Jesus healing the sick, blind, leprous, and raising the dead (Surah 3:48). These actions are not done by any other prophet, not even Muhammad. Since Jesus was not able to convince people with his mere humanity in his previous life on earth, it is unclear why Christians will revoke their belief in his divinity, and believe in his mere humanity when He comes back again. Islamic scholars do not give a convincing argument for this claim.
The second reason for Allah’s selection of Jesus as the Judge is related to the Jews. This is implied in the phrase He will “kill the pigs.” Al-‘ssqalani says that the wisdom from the second coming of Jesus—and not other prophet— is to prove that the Jews had not killed him. The verse that Muslims quote to prove the previous belief is in Surah 3:55. Allah says, “O ‘Iesa (Jesus)! I will take you and raise you to Myself and clear you of those who disbelieve” (Surah 3:55).
This verse is stated differently in the Arabic version. Instead of saying “I will take you,” it literarily says, “I will terminate your life.”
According to Al-Tabari, Muslim scholars do not agree on its meaning. Some of them believe that terminating Jesus’ life will happen after the second coming because Allah ascended Jesus to himself. They argue that Allah uses a pattern with all people: He creates them, gives them life, terminates their lives, and then raise them again. But since Allah did not follow these steps with Jesus, they believe Jesus will return to earth and die. Meanwhile, other scholars explain that every person is from the dust and to the dust shall he or she return. Since Jesus never died, and his body did not return to the dust, He will come back again. This verse is clearly saying that God terminated his life when He took him.
Even if both Islamic interpretations are considered true, there is no logical reason to believe that the Jews did not kill him. In fact, the Qur’an testifies that Jesus did raise people from the dead, and since dead people can be raised from the dead, there is no viable reason to believe that Jesus is coming back because his life was never terminated. In addition, the Islamic literature clearly reveals a special treatment that was offered to Jesus. While God ascended Jesus to heaven to protect him, He did not do the same for Muhammad, whose life was featured with battles and constant danger. Thus, the only logical reason for his coming is his distinguished divine nature.
The Just Judge: The Name Ascribed to Jesus
It is known that the Islamic belief is different from the biblical belief. However, Islam and Christianity both see Jesus as the ruler at the end of the world. The Arabic word for the ruler is Al-Hakam. This word is one of the ninety-nine beautiful names of Allah himself. Al-Ghazali explains the name Al-Hakam (meaning the Judge), alongside of Al-Adel (meaning the Just). He says, Al-Hakam Al-Adel is “the one who judges between His Servants in this life and the Hereafter with His justice and fairness… no servant will be recompensed in a way that is greater that the magnitude of his sin, he will be given only what he deserves.” This description applies to Jesus and what He is going to do at the end of times according to the Islamic tradition. That being said, the key note is that Jesus is given the same name and attribute, “Hakam Adel,” which belongs to Allah. In Sahih Bukhari, it is written that “the son of Mary will soon descend amongst you and will judge mankind justly (as a Just Ruler).”  For Jesus to have the same title as Allah is a very significant factor because no other human has ever enjoyed this title before.
The Circumstances of Jesus’ Second Coming
Along with the title and the act attributed to Jesus, it is very important to describe the circumstances that the Islamic literature reveals about Jesus’ final coming. The circumstances of his coming seem like a supernatural event. In his description of the Islamic visualization of the last coming of Jesus, Sahih Bukhari depicts Jesus descending at a white minaret in the eastern side of Damascus, wearing two garments, and placing his hands on the wings of two Angels. Then he continues to say, “[W]hen he would lower his head,” says Bukhari, “there would fall beads of perspiration from his head, and when he would raise it up, beads like pearls would scatter from it.” This description is uniquely ascribed to Jesus. It is not similar to anything that happened or will happen to any other prophet. In fact, the portrayal of Jesus ascending down from heaven, Angels escorting him, and beads and pearls coming down from him is a portrayal that belongs not to a human, but to a divine being.
Allah’s Works Is Ascribed to Jesus
In addition to his title and divine attributes, Jesus, upon his return, is going to do the same work that Allah does, which is to judge the world. On earth, prophets were given the job of solving disputes and they were regarded as wise and spiritual people. Jesus did the same during his life on earth but he is going to do what Allah is doing at the end of times. Like any other prophet, his job as a judge has not ended and it will resume at the end of times. But in regards to Jesus, the previous Hadeeth says, “People whom Allah had protected would come to Jesus, son of Mary, and he would wipe their faces and would inform them of their ranks in Paradise.” He will be attributed with the role of giving people their ranks and places in heaven, which is a very unique task that no one else but God himself can enjoy.
The Qur’an states clearly that Jesus is just a prophet and a regular man who has no divine nature that distinguish him from other prophets. However, the previous analysis shows that the Qur’an is not consistent with this claim because it indicates that Jesus had a sinless nature. He was not just an infallible person, but was untouched and undefiled by Satan, like the rest of humanity. He was a creator. He created birds out of clay by breathing the breath of life into him, which as an action only God can execute. History does not speak about any ordinary person who was able to give life to a clay dough and turn it into a living being. Jesus held names and titles like Al-Hakam Al-‘adel that belonged only to Allah. He acted and will act in a way that is related only to Allah. He will judge the world and assign people their ranks in paradise. The perception of Jesus being a sinless, creator, and the judge of the world should serve as a strong foundation for Muslims to give him a higher position in their belief. Thus, a prophet with such divine titles, attributes, and roles cannot be a mere human being. In light of the above, Muslim Scholars surely should reconsider their views as to who Christ really was—more than a prophet.
 Allah means God in Arabic. Arab Christians and Muslims use this word to refer to God even though they are referring to two different divine beings according to the Christian faith.
 Unless otherwise noted, all biblical passages referenced are in the New International Version (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2008).
 The Qur’an does not necessarily mention the sin of every prophets, for the story of some prophets were mentioned briefly. For instance, the Qur’an states that Prophet Yahya (John the Baptist) was honorable and righteous, but it does not record his story or prophecy (Surah 3:39).
 The English translation of the Qur’an that is being used in this study does not translate this phrase at all. Al-Hilali and Khan is content to write صلى الله عليه وسلم after each mention of the prophet Muhammad. Sometimes it appears in this way (ﷺ). The usual English translation is “peace be upon him.”
 All information between brackets are added by the translators to explain the meaning.
 Yassir Berhami, Fiqih Al-Khilaf ben Al Muslimin: Da’wa Ila ‘alaka Afdal ben Al-Itijahat Al-Islamiya Al-Mu’asirah (Cairo, Egypt: Dar Al-Aqidah, 2000), 29.
 Muslim, Sahih Muslim, book 43, Hadeeth no. 2362, 1110.
 (ﷺ) this character reads as “Sala Allah Aleih wa salam صلى الله عليه وسلم” Muslims mention this phrase every time they mention the name of Muhammad to gain more rewards in heaven. This statement literally means Allah prayed over Muhammad and greeted him. However, Muslims do not translate this statement into English in a literal way; they simply interpret it as “Peace be upon him” or they leave it in Arabic by using this character.
 Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari, book 65, Hadeeth 4548, 1115.
 Jalal Al-Deen Al-Soyoti, “Al-Dur Al-Manthoor,” IslamWeb, vol. 1, no. 1, accessed January 30, 2018, URL: http://library.islamweb.net/newlibrary/display_book.php?idfrom=384&idto=384&bk_no=203&ID=388.
 Saeed Qahtani, Asma’ Allah Al-Hussnah fi Dhaw’ Al-Kitab wa Al-Sunnah (Al-Riyad, Saudi Arabia: Al-Juraissi Publisher, 1988), 166.
 “خَلَقَ” Lissan Al-Arab Dictionary, vol. 5 (Beirut, Lebanon: Dar Sadir, 2003), 1244.
 Abi Hamed Al-Gazali. Ninty-Nine Names of God in Islam: A translation of the Major Portion of Al-Ghazali’s Al-Maqsad Al-Asna, Robert Charles Stade, trans., (Ibadan, Nigeria: Day Star Press, 1970), 31-32.
 Sahih Muslim and Sahih Bukhari are the second major official books in Islamic literature after the Qur’an, according to the Sunni sect of Islam. Any Hadeeth (collective talks based on Prophet Muhammad’s words and acts) is treated as authentic and authoritative as the Qur’an.
 Abi Abdullah Al-Bukhari, Sahih Al-Bukhari, Hadeeth no. 3448, (Damascus, Syria: Dar Iben Kathir, 2002), 854. Abi Al-Hussain Muslim Al-Nissabouri, Sahih Muslim, Hadeeth no. 242, (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Dar Tiba, 2006), 80.
 It is known that Muslims do not believe that Jesus was crucified (Surah 4:157).
 Al-Nasarah is the name that the Qur’an uses to identify Christians.
 Ahmad Al-‘ssqalani, Fathu Al-Bari Bisharih Sahih Bukhari, vol 6, Qussay Al-Khatib, ed., (Dar Al-Rayan Lilturath, 1986), 568.
 “متوفيك” is the Arabic word and it means I am terminating your life.
 Al-Tabari, Jami’ Al-Bayan an Ta’weel ay Qur’an, vol. 2, Bashar Ma’roof and Issam Al-Hirstani, eds., (Beirut, Lebanon: Al-Risalah, 1994), 265
 Al-‘ssqalani, Fathu Al-Bari Bisharih Sahih Bukhari, 566.
 Al-Ghazali, Al-Maqsah Al-Asna, 76.
 Bukhari, Sahih Al-Bukhari, Hadeeth no. 3448, 854-855.
 Muslim, Sahih Muslim, Hadeeth 2937, 1342.
 Muslim, Sahih Muslim, Hadeeth 2937, 1342.
Al-‘ssqalani, Ahmad. Fathu Al-Bari Bisharih Sahih Bukhari. Vol 6. Edited by Qussay Al-Khatib. Dar Al-Rayan Lilturath, 1986.
Al-Bukhari, Abi Abdullah. Sahih Al-Bukhari. Damascus, Syria: Dar Iben Kathir, 2002.
Al-Gazali, Abi Hamed. Ninty-Nine Names of God in Islam: A translation of the Major Portion of Al-Ghazali’s Al-Maqsad Al-Asna. Translated by Robert Charles Stade. Ibadan, Nigeria: Day Star Press, 1970.
Al-Nissabouri, Abi Al-Hussain Muslim. Sahih Muslim. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Dar Tiba, 2006.
Al-Soyoti, Jalal Al-Deen “Al-Dur Al-Manthoor.” IslamWeb. Vol. 1. No. 1. Accessed January 30, 2018. URL: http://library.islamweb.net/newlibrary/display_book.php?idfrom=384&idto=384&bk_no=203&ID=388.
Al-Tabari, Muhammad Ibn Jarir Jame’ Jami’ Al-Bayan an Ta’weel ay Qur’an. Vol. 2. Edited by Bashar Ma’roof and Issam Al-Hirstani. Beirut, Lebanon: Al-Risalah, 1994.
Berhami,Yassir. Fiqih Al-Khilaf ben Al Muslimin: Da’wa Ila ‘alaka Afdal ben Al-Itijahat Al-Islamiya Al-Mu’asirah. Cairo, Egypt: Dar Al-Aqidah, 2000.
Lissan Al-Arab Dictionary. Vol. 11. Beirut, Lebanon: Dar Sadir, 2003.
Qahtani,Saeed. Asma’ Allah Al-Hussnah fi Dhaw’ Al-Kitab wa Al-Sunnah. Al-Riyad, Saudi Arabia: Al-Juraissi Publisher, 1988.